• Comparisons


as + adjective/adverb + as


e.g. My sister speaks French better than me.

My French is not as good as hers.


as + much/many + as


e.g. Sam has more books than me.

I don´t have as many books as Sam.


more than


e.g. Sarah doesn´t eat as much as Tina.

Tina eats more than Sarah.


  • Enough/Too


enough + noun

adjective/adverb + enough


e.g. She is too young to go out alone.

She is not old enough to go out alone.


too + adjective/adverb

too many/much + noun


e.g. She is too short to be a basketball player.

She is not tall enough to be a basketball player.


  • Whose


whose→ belong to


e.g. Whose bag is it?

Who does this bag belong to?


  • Unless


e.g. He won´t pass the exam if he doesn´t study hard.

He won´t pass the exam unless he studies hard.


  • Such/so


such + (adjective) + noun such + a lot of

so + adjective/adverb so + many/much


e.g. He is such a clever man.

He is so clever.


It was such a beautiful painting.

The painting was so beautiful.


so + adjective/adverb + that

such + noun + that


Yesterday he got up too late to catch the train.

Yesterday he got up so late that he couldn´t catch the train.


  • Popular


e.g. Many people like swimming.

Swimming is a popular sport.


Not many people like rock music.

Rock music is not very popular.


  • Lend/borrow


e.g. Can I borrow your pen?

Can you lend me your pen?


  • Far from/close to


e.g. John lives a long way from his office.

John´s office is far from his home.


John´s office is not far from his home.

John lives close to his office.


  • Allowed


you musn´t → you are not allowed


e.g. Children musn´t swim alone.

Children are not allowed to swim alone.

  • Used to


e.g. When I was a child, I studied French.

When I was a child, I used to study French.


  • Although


e.g. I ate a lot of biscuits but I was still hungry.

Although I ate a lot of biscuits, I was still hungry.


  • Suggestions


Why don´t we…?

We could + verb…

Shall we + verb…

What about + verb+ing… ?


e.g. We could go to the cinema.

Why don´t we go to the cinema?


Tom suggested buying a pizza.

Tom said, ´What about buying a pizza?´


  • The first time


e.g. He had never been to the cinema before.

It was the first time he had been to the cinema.


  • Past simple/Present Perfect


e.g. I joined the gym two months ago.

I have been a gym member for two months.


  • Passive Voice


e.g. Present Simple

The postman delivers the letters.

The letters are delivered by the postman.


Present Continuous

Mary is cleaning the house.

The house is being cleaned by Mary.



Past simple

My brother built this house.

This house was built by my brother.


Past continuous

She was baking the cake.

The cake was being baked.


  • Reported Speech


Present simple changes to past simple.

´She works in a bank,´ said Tom.

Tom said that she worked in a bank.


Present continuous changes to past continuous.

´She was working,´ said Tom.

Tom said that she was working.


Past simple changes to past perfect.

´She bought a bike,´ said Tom.

Tom said that she had bought a bike.


Past Continuous changes to Past Perfect Continuous.

´She was cleaning the house,´ said Tom.

Tom said that she had been cleaning the house.


Will changes to would

´I will come to the party,´ said Sam.

Sam said he would come to the party.


Can changes to could.

´I can swim,´ said John.

John said he could swim.


  • I find it…/ makes it…


e.g. Shopping makes me tired.

I find it tiring.


Australian accent is difficult to understand.

I find it difficult to understand Australian accent.

  • There is/ Has got


e.g. There is a swimming pool in this hotel.

This hotel has a swimming pool.


There was a beautiful garden in the museum.

The museum had a beautiful garden.


  • Perhaps/ might


e.g. Perhaps I will come later.

I might come later.